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9.8.- MACHINES THERMIQUES
A thermal machine is a set of mechanical elements that performs a work through a cyclic process where energy crosses from a hot focus to a cold focus through a compressible fluid.Voir plus
In thermal machines, significant density changes occur in the working fluid as it passes through the machine. By contrast, this change is negligible in hydraulic machines.
There are several criteria for the classification of thermal machines:
- According to the energy transfer direction: motor or generating machines.
- Depending on its formation: rotary or alternative.
- Depending on the flow continuity: volumetric or continuous flow.
- Depending on the place of combustion: external combustion or internal combustion.
The most important thermal generating machines are:
- Turbine: it is a rotary machine through which a fluid passes continuously and transmits its energy through a shaft. The fluid pressure decreases as it passes through the blades of the machine, making them rotate.
- Internal combustion engine: as the name suggests, it is a type of machine that obtains mechanical energy directly from the combustion of a fuel inside a chamber. The most common are the reciprocating engine (Otto cycle), the diesel engine (diesel cycle) and the Stirling engine.
- Steam engine: it is an external combustion engine that transforms thermal energy into mechanical energy. It is the machine used in power plants.
Thermal machines are used for power cycles. They can be used for cycles in power plants, such as the Rankine cycle for steam, or for propulsion with the Brayton cycle when working with gas.Voir les produits