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5.6.- SYSTÈMES DE PROTECTION ÉLECTRIQUE ET HAUTE TENSION
High voltage power systems can be considered as one of the largest connected systems in the world. Hundreds of kilometers of power lines interconnect from small towns and cities to entire countries. Even underground cables interconnect islands under the sea to cover the energy needs of their populations too.Voir plus
High voltage power systems are extremely complex since it is essential to keep certain electrical variables under certain ranges that cannot vary. Voltage, frequency and level of harmonics are some of the constantly supervised electrical parameters. The electric current and the active and reactive power flows, as well as the power factor, are other determining parameters to ensure enough quality and efficiency to the transported electrical energy. In addition, to avoid irreversible damage to electrical grids, high voltage systems have protection relays, whose purpose is to protect these grids against electrical faults, lightning strikes, incorrect operations, etc.
For these reasons, the design and management of an electric power system is a very complex task due to the dynamics of its behavior and the constant power fluctuations that occur. Securing the stability of the electrical system is essential. For that purpose, the main elements of the system are analyzed, among them: transmission lines, generators and electrical power transformers. Initially, the analysis of the parameters of the electric power transmission lines is carried out, and it is obtained an analytical and graphical representation that makes it possible to study the transport capacity and the behavior with fluctuations of the generated and demanded energy. On the other hand, taking into account the typology of the operation and the capacities of power generating machines and electrical power transformers, the stability of an electrical system can be entirely analyzed and improved.
Finally, a description of the main socio-environmental impacts of power systems is made, with a special emphasis on electricity transmission lines. The methodology of an environmental impact study according to regulations and the measures for the reduction, elimination or compensation of possible impacts are developed.Voir les produits