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9.9.- MOTEURS À COMBUSTION INTERNE
An internal combustion engine is a fluid-mechanic machine that converts the chemical energy of the fuel-air mixture into mechanical energy after a combustion process in the working cylinder. In the combustion, the energy contained in the fuel is released by its ignition and subsequent oxidation inside the engine.Voir plus
The main types of internal combustion engines are:
- Otto cycle piston engine: it is the conventional gasoline engine.
- Diesel engine: it works with diesel fuel.
Otto and diesel engines have the same main elements (engine block, piston, connecting rod, crankshaft, valves and cylinder head) and contain the same systems (fuel supply, distribution, ignition, cooling and starting) except some specific elements, such as the carburetor for the Otto engine or the injector for the diesel engine.
Depending on the operating cycle, internal combustion engines can be classified into:
- Two-stroke engine: the piston completes one stroke per revolution.
- Four-stroke engine: the piston completes two strokes per revolution.
These engines stand out among other propulsion methods for several reasons:
- High range, due to the high calorific value of fuels.
- Wide variety of powers.
- Great amount of manufacturing possibilities.
It is important to study the combustion emissions of these engines since they are one of the main pollutants at present. Although the pollution values are not representative individually, they are a harmful source when referred as a whole, taking into account that engines are installed in most motor vehicles.Voir les produits