Nowadays, electrical power is an essential energy source present in many applications. In homes and industries it is used for lighting, anti-theft systems, fire alarms, cold and hot air conditioning, home and building automation systems, electrical machines, etc.
Electrical power is produced by electrical systems that guarantee its availability. All electrical systems are formed by power generation plants, high-voltage power transmission lines, transformation centers, medium and low voltage distribution lines and electricity control centers, from where the grid operator manages and operates the power transport and generation system.
The strong evolution of the electrical system has cleared the way for Smart Energy Networks (Smart Grids). These are characterized by decentralized power generation, where renewable energies, micro-grids, smart meters and advanced protection systems gain relevance. Their objective is to maintain the continuity of the electricity supply, its reliability, its energy efficiency and the reduction of CO2 emissions.