9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that belongs to the phenomenological science that studies real systems, not modeled, and follows an experimental method. As a consequence, those systems are experimentally defined by approximations and measurement of variables.

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Macroscopically, thermodynamic systems are defined by variables. A large number of thermodynamic variables can be measured, but only one number is needed to determine unequivocally the system, the state functions. Pressure, volume, temperature, entropy and enthalpy are some of the most important state variables.

Changes in the states of matter take place with the modification of the thermodynamic variables. The fundamental states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. There are certain pressure and temperature conditions for each element or compound at which changes of state occur.

The concept of ideal gas has been introduced to simplify real thermodynamic systems and the changes of state generated. They are defined by the ideal gas equation PV = nRT. An ideal incompressible liquid is approximated in the same way.

In a closed system with liquid, there is a thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and its vapor phase. The evolution of the pressure and temperature of the system in equilibrium define the pressure curve of the vapor and the existing state is called saturation state. From that evolution, the temperature-pressure diagram is represented.

The study of these concepts is of great importance in practice, essentially applied to water. For example, the specification of moisture, contraction and expansion levels of the ideal matter is then applied in actual thermal machines, such as turbines, nozzles, steam engines for the evaluation of operation schemes.

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FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS UNITS
Showing 1-17 of 17 item(s)
COMPUTER CONTROLLED COMBUSTION LABORATORY UNIT - TVCC
  • TVCC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TVCC

Computer Controlled Combustion Laboratory Unit

The Computer Controlled Combustion Laboratory Unit, “TVCC”, unit is mounted on a metallic frame that enables safe access to the equipment and an easy handling and access to the burner, combustion chamber and all the accessories and control panels....
THERMAL EXPANSION TRAINING UNIT - TEDT
  • TEDT
Available
9.5.- THERMAL HYDRAULIC PIPING SYSTEM
TEDT

Thermal Expansion Training Unit

The Thermal Expansion Training Unit, “TEDT”, allows to study the thermal expansion of different pipe sections and the thermal expansion force.It comprises original components as used in heating and sanitation systems.This unit provides...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED EXPANSION PROCESSES OF A PERFECT GAS UNIT - TEPGC
  • TEPGC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TEPGC

Computer Controlled Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas Unit

The “TEPGC” is a unit designed to demonstrate the expansion and compression processes of a perfect gas and the basic principles of thermodynamics. The unit consists of two rigid vessels connected to each other. They are made of methacrylate to...
BOMB CALORIMETER - TBCF
  • TBCF
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TBCF

Bomb Calorimeter

Bomb Calorimeter, "TBCF", comprises the calorimeter, a calorimeter vessel, an outer double walled water jacket, control unit to switch on/off the stirrer and the ignition device, an accurate thermometer and charging unit with pressure gauges to...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED SEPARATING AND THROTTLING CALORIMETER - TCESC
  • TCESC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TCESC

Computer Controlled Separating and Throttling Calorimeter

The Computer Controlled Separating and Throttling Calorimeter, "TCESC", has been designed to determine the steam humidity content and the dryness fraction of steam.This unit works with steam. The steam is introduced into the line by means of a...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED MARCET BOILER UNIT - TECMC
  • TECMC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TECMC

Computer Controlled Marcet Boiler Unit

The Computer Controlled Marcet Boiler Unit "TECMC" is an unit designed to demonstrate the relationship between pressure and temperature of the saturated steam for comparison with published results.The unit consists of an insulated stainless steel...
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNIT - TMT
  • TMT
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TMT

Temperature Measurement Unit

The Temperature Measurement Unit, “TMT”, works as a temperature meter that uses different temperatures measuring devices to compare, check and analyze the temperature and how is the precision for the measure and for the device that the student has...
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT TRAINING UNIT - TEMT
  • TEMT
Available
9.10.3.- INSTALLATIONS AND MAINTENANCE TRAINING
TEMT

Temperature Measurement Training Unit

The Temperature Measurement Training Unit, “TEMT”, allows to compare the response of several devices to measure the temperature for different flows and different installation position of these devices.The unit includes four different measuring...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED GAS LAWS UNIT (BOYLE AND GAY-LUSSAC LAWS) - TLBGC
  • TLBGC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TLBGC

Computer Controlled Gas Laws Unit (Boyle and Gay-Lussac Laws)

The Computer Controlled Gas Laws Unit (Boyle and Gay-Lussac Law), “TLBGC”, allows to demonstrate two fundamental gas laws: Boylend Mariotte's Law (isothermal change of state) and Gay-Lussac's 2 Law (isochoric change of state).The unit consists of...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED RECYCLE LOOPS UNIT - TRLC
  • TRLC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TRLC

Computer Controlled Recycle Loops Unit

The Computer Controlled Recycle Loops Unit, "TRLC", has been designed to demonstrate, both visually and experimentally, what a recycleloop is and how it works. It has many teaching applications, among them the performance of mass and energy...
RECYCLE LOOPS UNIT - TRLB
  • TRLB
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TRLB

Recycle Loops Unit

The Recycle Loops Unit, "TRLB", has been designed to demonstrate, both visually and experimentally, what a recycle loop is and how itworks. It has many teaching applications, among them the performance of mass and energy balances under stable and...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED SATURATION PRESSURE UNIT - TSPC
  • TSPC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TSPC

Computer Controlled Saturation Pressure Unit

The Computer Controlled Saturation Pressure Unit, “TSPC”, consists of a water boiler, including a computer controlled immersion heatingelement, and a sight glass to observe the boiling patterns in the water surface and control the waterlevel in...
AIR HUMIDITY MEASUREMENT UNIT - TMHA
  • TMHA
Available
9.2.- HEATING, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING AND HOT WATER
TMHA

Air Humidity Measurement Unit

The Air Humidity Measurement Unit, “TMHA”, enables the differences in accuracy between different instruments to measure the air relativehumidity. It also includes a fan to show the effects of airflow on the different instruments.A mobile metallic...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED FLAME PROPAGATION AND STABILITY UNIT - TVPLC
  • TVPLC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TVPLC

Computer Controlled Flame Propagation and Stability Unit

The Computer Controlled Flame Propagation and Stability Unit “TVPLC” is a teaching unit which allows to obtain various flames by changing the quantities of the fuel – comburent mix.The unit is prepared to work with different gaseous fuels, so it...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED FLOW OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS UNIT - HFCC
  • HFCC
Available
8.7.5.- COMPRESSORS
HFCC

Computer Controlled Flow of Compressible Fluids Unit

The Computer Controlled Flow of Compressible Fluids Unit, “HFCC”, allows to study the variation of pressure and density, the speeds of the fluid, the different fluctuations that the fluid presents when fluids across different sections in a pipe,...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED NOZZLE PERFORMANCE TEST UNIT - TFTC
  • TFTC
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TFTC

Computer Controlled Nozzle Performance Test Unit

The Computer Controlled Nozzle Performance Test Unit, "TFTC", has been specially designed to allow students to investigate and study theperformance of a nozzle (kinetic energy and thrust).Operating from a normal laboratory compressed air supply,...
NOZZLE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION UNIT - TPT
  • TPT
Available
9.1.- FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
TPT

Nozzle Pressure Distribution Unit

The Nozzle Pressure Distribution Unit “TPT” has been designed to demonstrate the phenomena associated to fluxes through nozzles and to allow the students investigating quickly the pressure distribution in them.The Nozzle Pressure Distribution...