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Foods are chemical substances with nutrients that provide the energy required for metabolic processes. Other important components of food are fiber, natural additives (antibiotics, vitamins and antioxidants), stimulants (caffeine), preservatives (vinegar, brine and sugar), etc.
For centuries, humans have made bread, beer and wine or have dried fish by salting. However, current lifestyles make consumers look for fortified, innovative and easy-to-eat food. On the other hand, the food manufacturing industry seeks efficiency and hygiene, cost reduction, quality, food safety and the commercialization of nutritious and healthy food.
To meet the demand, food is subjected to processes to modify its shape, composition or energy value with treatments such as: kneading, canning, irradiation, drying, addition of additives such as edible coatings, etc. Likewise, foods are preserved using substances of natural origin (antimicrobials, antioxidants), heat (blanching, cooking, pasteurization, sterilization, and dehydration), cold (refrigeration or freezing), by curing, by chemical means (disinfectants and fungicides) or using several methods simultaneously.