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General Description

The Computer Controlled Francis Turbine, "TFC", developed by EDIBON has a Francis turbine in miniature which has a distributor with adjustable guide vanes allowing to control the water incidence angle in the turbine. To regulate the distributor, the unit has a handle at its frontal.

To elevate the fluid, there is a pump which allows the impulsed flow to pass through the turbine, where part of its energy is left causing its rotation. To rotate, the flows must overcome the external resistance that a band brake causes.

This brake is connected to a load cell and the whole allows to determine the torque given by the turbine. The speed measurement is obtained by means of a speed sensor.

The brake load can be changed by tensing the band of the brake. This way, the torque can be changed in the turbine.

The chamber is spiral shaped (spiral chamber). Due to its design, it is possible for the water to circulate with an aparent constant speed and without forming twists, avoiding load losses.

The "TFC" unit has an aspiration tube which consists on a conduction which joins the turbine to the drain. Its objective is to recuperate a maximum kinetic energy of the water at the turbine outlet or, in other words, to use the head existing between the free water surface and the turbine outlet.

The hydraulic head is calculated by two pressure sensors: one at the chamber inlet and the other one at the outlet (diffuser).

An actuator on the pump allows to change its rotation regime, changing so the incoming flow to the turbine.

The pump-turbine group has a tank and a pipes system which allow to work constantly with recirculated fluid to avoid the indiscriminated water consumption.

This Computer Controlled Unit is supplied with the EDIBON Computer Control System (SCADA), and includes: The unit itself + a Control Interface Box + a Data Acquisition Board + Computer Control, Data Acquisition and Data Management Software Packages, for controlling the process and all parameters involved in the process.

Exercises and guided practices

GUIDED PRACTICAL EXERCISES INCLUDED IN THE MANUAL

  1. To determine the operating characteristics of a Francis turbine at different speeds.
  2. Height of the turbine.
  3. Determination of the Francis turbine’s power N (n), Torque Mm (n) and efficiency η (n) curves at constant flow with guide vanes open.
  4. Determination of the Francis turbine’s power N (n), Torque Mm (n) and efficiency η (n) curves at constant flow with guide vanes closed.
  5. Determination of the power N (Q), Head H (Q) and efficiency η (Q) curves at constant rotation speed and guide vanes opened.
  6. Determination of the power N (Q), Head H (Q) and efficiency η (Q) curves at constant rotation speed and guide vanes closed.
  7. Adimensional analysis.
  8. Sensors calibration.

MORE PRACTICAL EXERCISES TO BE DONE WITH THE UNIT

  1. Turbine power output versus speed and flow rate at various heads.
  2. Effect of guide vane setting on the turbine performance.
  3. Investigation of the conversion of hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.
  4. Calculating the turbine power.
  5. Determining the turbine hydraulic efficiency.
  6. Determining the torque and speed of the turbine.
  7. Flow calculation.

Other possibilities to be done with this Unit:

  1. Many students view results simultaneously. To view all results in real time in the classroom by means of a projector or an electronic whiteboard.
  2. Open Control, Multicontrol and Real Time Control. This unit allows intrinsically and/or extrinsically to change the span, gains, proportional, integral, derivative parameters, etc, in real time.
  3. The Computer Control System with SCADA and PID Control allow a real industrial simulation.
  4. This unit is totally safe as uses mechanical, electrical and electronic, and software safety devices.
  5. This unit can be used for doing applied research.
  6. This unit can be used for giving training courses to Industries even to other Technical Education Institutions.
  7. Control of the TFC unit process through the control interface box without the computer.
  8. Visualization of all the sensors values used in the TFC unit process.
  9. By using PLC-PI additional 19 more exercises can be done.
  10. Several other exercises can be done and designed by the user.

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