8.- 流体力学

流体力学分支研究流体在静止(流体静态)或在运动(流体动​​力学)中的行为定律及其与固体的相互作用过程。能够流动(即移动)的物质被视为流体。其中包括液体(水,油,酒精,牛奶,硫酸,汽油)和气体(空气,氧气,氮气,氦气,氩气,甲烷,丁烷,天然气)。

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从我们周围的空气,游泳池中的水到灌溉用水,使我们能够在汽车中制动的液压系统,供暖或空调,以及在我们自己的血液系统中流体研究基于著名的阿基米德原理和帕斯卡原理,伯努利方程,文丘里效应或达西定律等。寻求适用性的流体机械工程领域是通过经验和数学方法研究的,重点介绍了无量纲数,例如雷诺兹,普兰特,马赫和弗洛德。流体力学原理的超越性使发明保持了它们的共同点:通过通道的水输送,海上和空中运输,液压,热力和气动机器,管道中的解决气蚀问题或冲击的解决方案。柱塞,液压和气动传动及控制装置等。

考虑到流体在各种应用中的相关性,了解流体的性质(即流体的类型)并根据其特性进行描述非常重要。最重要的是:压力,温度,体积,密度,粘度,可压缩性,比热,热膨胀性和混溶性。

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流体力学 SUBCATEGORIES

8.1.- 流体力学模块化实验室

水力学是研究流体机械特性的科学分支,流体力学是水力学的基础。EDIBON试图以简单实用的方式,对流体力学基础教学的学术需求给出一个答案。为此,它有一个灵活的、模块化的基础流体力学学习体系。通过提出的一系列模块,学生进行实验,清晰地展示了水力学的规律。通过这些实验,学生在自然、愉快、朴实的过程中获得使用液压仪器和工具的经验。通过流体力学实验室所包含的设备,学生可以进行流体的表征、流体流动的测量和控制,研究流体力学的主要现象和原理,了解工业上广泛使用的设备的表示方法。

8.2.- 度量衡

计量学是研究量的测量的科学。它的基础是力求在参考值与需要定量的对象或现象之间建立起关系,并获得测量的表达式。测量必须是可重复的,而且不确定度尽可能小,误差取决于技术人员的专业知识或所用仪器的精度。在测量中获得的数值是为了以标准化的方式在单位系统中表示,例如国际系统。需要测量的领域很广,从社会科学、健康科学到最纯粹、最实验的科学都有。目前,在创新和优化测量仪器及其校准方面取得了进展。我们都曾在某些时候做过一些测量,比如车辆轮胎的胎压,或者玩游戏所需的时间。有很多设备可以让我们测量基本量级。例如,可以用转子流量计或流量传感器测量流体的流量,用布顿压力计测量流体循环的压力,用热电偶测量流体的温度等。

8.3.- 静水压

流体静力学是流体力学的一个分支,研究流体在容器中,没有力改变液体的静止状态或运动状态时的行为和相关现象。相反,流体力学研究的是运动中的流体。流体静力学是基于帕斯卡原理和阿基米德原理。帕斯卡原理指出:"在容器中密闭的流体中,压力以相等的强度向各个方向传递"。同样,阿基米德原理也指出:"当一个物体浸入液体中时,它对该物体施加的向上的力等于它所脱落的液体的重量"。从这些原理出发,定义了流体静力学的基本方程。 dP = ρ g...

8.4.- 流可视化

流体的流动被框定在流体力学的分支中。研究的重点是流体运动的压缩,条件是牛顿定律和质量与能量守恒,以及斯托克斯、雷诺或普朗特数等定律。通过流体的运动和方向的可视化,借助于电流和流线,可以了解压力和速度的分布。电流线总是显示与速度平行,而流线是流体的路径,这两种线型在静止状态下是一致的。流体可以被认为是可压缩的(气体)或不可压缩的(液体)。这些流体根据其性质和所受的力,在管道、通道、涡轮机等内可能呈现层流或紊流。当流体呈现出缓慢而有序的运动,流体的片面平行而平稳地滑动时,就会出现层流。而在湍流中,运动的能量比较大,不规则,不可预测。如今,流体的流动是一个重要的领域,因为它对工业设备的尺寸、民...

8.5.- 液压通道

水是生物所使用的基本元素,自古以来,为了分配和消耗水,人们开发出了不同的巧计,如渠道。水力或明渠,或简称渠,是指向大气开放的输送流体的管道,它在其中因自身重量和施工坡度而发生位移。渠道可以是天然的建筑(河流或溪流),也可以是人工的,即使是部分填埋的管道也被认为是渠道。渠道的建设可以是不同的几何形状,并以不同的流态(永久均匀流或非均匀流)和排流态(亚临界、临界或超临界)运行。渠道的主要参数有:吃水或深度、断面顶宽、底板、湿润周长和渠道坡度。此外,还设计了许多类型的控制结构,用于流量调节和排放测量,如堰/围堰(薄壁或厚壁和虹吸器)或闸门,可以有不同的几何形状。渠道在工程中起着重要的作用,从广...

8.6.- 空气动力学

空气动力学是流体力学的一部分,研究运动中的气体和其中的物体所受的力或反应。对于空气动力学的重要性,我们必须加上它对航空学的贡献价值。根据马赫数或机动车相对于空气的相对速度,空气动力学根据这个数字比单位低或高,分为亚音速和超音速。在流体力学中,在研究气体的范围内,通常使用空气,通常量化的主要变量是速度、压力、阻力或升力等。用于流体力学试验的风洞被广泛用于确定风对不同类型物体的作用。待研究的模型保持静止状态,而流动介质则处于运动状态。风洞的主要部件有:风机、扩散器、室、收缩器和试验段。每当我们移动或投掷一个物体时,都会有一些我们平时没有注意到的物理原理发生作用。了解空气动力学的原理,在很多活...

8.7.- 流体机械

在流体力学中,一个特殊的应用领域是流体机械的研究。流体机是将通过的流体的能量转化或将能量传递给流体的设备。这种液体可以是气体、蒸汽或液体。根据这个定义,可以推导出以下分类:发电机。涡轮机:由于通过它们的流体运动量的变化,在轴上产生扭矩和动力。风力发电机:将风的动能转化为机械能。l消耗机。...

8.8.- 流体管道系统

在工程中,流体管线被定义为能够将流体从源头输送到所需目的地的结构或工作。有两种类型的传导:封闭的(管道、隧道或下水道)和开放的(自然流)。封闭管道中的流量一般会受到压力,不像那些自由表面的管道。管道在工程中的应用是多种多样的,所以要对其进行调整。为此,它们有部件,在导水管道中主要是管道和部件(接头、弯头、异径管、阀门等)。此外,根据设计规格或工作要求,管道可以通过泵系统、重力或两种机制输送流体。同时,由于材料中可能存在较厚的固体或流体的磨蚀性等特性,因此研究材料很重要。最明显的例子是在饮用水的分配和供应网络中发现的管道。人类的用水设施,必须保证安全和卫生,它是由水箱、管道、配件等各种要素...

8.9.- 安装与维护

当今社会的需求对任何行业来说都是一种挑战,因为行业必须在不断的发展和改造中才能适应这些需求。近年来,由于新的工业革命或 "工业4.0","工业物联网"(IIoT)和 "智能工厂...
流体力学 UNITS
Showing 1-30 of 162 item(s)
BASIC FLUIDS MECHANICS INTEGRATED LABORATORY - LIFLUBA
  • LIFLUBA
Available
8.1.7.- 液压机: 涡轮机
LIFLUBA
基本流体力学综合实验室:
Hydraulics is the branch of science that deals with the mechanical properties of fluids, and Fluid Mechanics provides the foundation for hydraulics.With LIFLUBA (Basic Fluids Mechanics Integrated Laboratory), EDIBON tries to give answer to the...
HYDRAULICS BENCH - FME00
Available
8.1.1.- 基本单位
FME00
液压工作台
配件 LIFLUBA
Unit for the study of fluid behaviour, hydraulic theory and the propertiesof fluid mechanics. It is formed by a movable hydraulics bench used to hold a wide variety ofmodules, which allow the student to experiment with the problemspresented by...
BASIC HYDRAULIC FEED SYSTEM - FME00/B
Available
8.1.1.- 基本单位
FME00/B
基本的液压进给系统
配件 LIFLUBA
The Basic Hydraulic Feed System, "FME00/B", designed by EDIBON is a service unit for different Fluid Mechanics Units as: "FME" type modules, Fluid Friction in Pipes Unit "AFT", etc., increasing the equipment profitability.
FLOW OVER WEIRS - FME02
Available
8.1.2.- 测量
FME02
堰过流
配件 LIFLUBA
The Flow over Weirs, "FME02", designed by EDIBON, allows to study the flow characteristics trough a rectangular and "V" shaped neckline.This module has many elements that are used in combination with the Hydraulics Bench (FME00):A special...
DEAD WEIGHT CALIBRATOR - FME10
Available
8.1.2.- 测量
FME10
静重校准
配件 LIFLUBA
The Pressure Gauge Calibrator, "FME10", designed by EDIBON, allows the study of the operation of a Bourdon type pressure gauge using a standard set of calibrated weights and the determination and the study of the pressure gauge hysteresis...
FLOW METER DEMONSTRATION - FME18
Available
8.1.2.- 测量
FME18
流量计示范
配件 LIFLUBA
The Flow Meter Demonstration, "FME18", designed by EDIBON, allows through 3 different flow measurement accessories: Venturi tube, orifice plate and a variable area meter installed in series in the unit, the study to find the flow rate of the fluid...
DEPRESSION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (VACUUM GAUGE) - FME26
Available
8.1.2.- 测量
FME26
泄压测量系统(真空计)
配件 LIFLUBA
The Depression Measurement System (vacuum gauge), "FME 26", is designed to be connected to the inlet of some flow aspiration system, in a way that we could measure the depression made by the so-called aspiration system. Such system will be...
TRANSPARENT VORTEX FLOW METER - FME30
Available
8.1.2.- 测量
FME30
旋涡流量计
配件 LIFLUBA
The Transparent Vortex Flow Meter, "FME30", designed by EDIBON allows to perform studies and experiments of different volumetric and mass flow measurement methods, as well as the comparison of continuous and discontinuous methods.This unit...
VORTEX FLOW METER - FME30/I
Available
8.1.2.- 测量
FME30/I
Vortex Flow Meter
配件 LIFLUBA
The Vortex Flowmeter, "FME30/I", designed by EDIBON, allows to perform different studies and experiments of various volumetric and mass flow measurement methods, as well as the comparison of continuous and discontinuous methods.This unit includes...
FLUID STATICS AND MANOMETRY - FME34
Available
8.1.2.- 测量
FME34
流体静力学和测压
配件 LIFLUBA
This module has been designed to study static fluids and manometry. It provides the user an introduction to the behaviour of liquids under hydrostatic conditions (fluids at rest) and to the application of those principles in the pressure...
ROTAMETER - FME36
Available
8.1.2.- 测量
FME36
Rotameter
配件 LIFLUBA
The Rotameter, "FME36", designed by EDIBON is a variable area flowmeter with floater. This type of flowmeter can be used for flow measurements in almost any environment.The operation mode of this type of flowmeter is based on the fact that if a...
DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM AND SENSORS - BDAS
Available
8.1.7.- 液压机: 涡轮机
BDAS
Data Acquisition System and Sensors
配件 LIFLUBA
BDAS is designed to monitor the measurements of each module type "FME" from a computer.This system can monitor any module, checking the revolutions given by the water pump or the torque, differential pressures for Bernoulli theorems, pressure...
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE - FME08
Available
8.1.3.- 静水的
FME08
静水压力
配件 LIFLUBA
The module consists of a quadrant assembled to the arm of ascale that swings around an axis.When the quadrant is immersed in the water tank, the forcethat acts on the flat rectangular front surface exerts amomentum with respect to the supporting...
METACENTRIC HEIGHT DEMOSTRATION - FME11
Available
8.1.3.- 静水的
FME11
稳心高度
配件 LIFLUBA
The Metacentric Height Demonstration Unit, "FME11", designed by EDIBON, allows the study of the stability of a floating object by calculating its metacentric height.The unit consists of a floating methacrylate prismatic base, on which a vertical...
FLUID PROPERTIES - FME35
Available
8.1.3.- 静水的
FME35
流体性质
配件 LIFLUBA
The Fluid Properties Unit, "FME35", designed by EDIBON, allows the study of the fluids fundamental properties that affect their behavior (capillarity, density and relative density (specific gravity), buoyancy (Archimedes principle), viscosity,...
BERNOULLI'S THEOREM DEMONSTRATION - FME03
Available
8.1.4.- 静水的
FME03
伯努利定理示范
配件 LIFLUBA
The Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration unit, "FME03", designed by EDIBON is mainly composed of a circular section pipe with the shape of a truncated cone, transparent and with seven pressure taps that allows to measure, simultaneously, the static...
ORIFICE DISCHARGE - FME04
Available
8.1.4.- 静水的
FME04
孔板放电
配件 LIFLUBA
The Orifice Discharge Unit, "FME04", designed by EDIBON allows the study of the different concentration, discharge and velocity coefficients for thin and/or thick wall for different types: colloidal, Venturi or diaphragm.The unit consists of a...
FREE AND FORCED VORTEX - FME14
Available
8.1.4.- 静水的
FME14
自由涡与强制涡
配件 LIFLUBA
The module has a cylindrical and transparent deposit with two inlet pipes diametrically opposed, slightly inclined to produce a whirl. This deposit has an outlet in the center of its base, where 3 mouthpieces with orifices of different...
ORIFICE AND FREE JET FLOW - FME17
Available
8.1.4.- 静水的
FME17
孔板与自由射流
配件 LIFLUBA
The Orifice and Free Jet Flow unit, "FME17", designed by EDIBON, allows the study of the different discharge and velocity coefficients in permanent or variable regime as well as the calculation of the discharge times.The unit consists of a...
CAVITATION PHENOMENON DEMONSTRATION - FME19
Available
8.1.4.- 静水的
FME19
气蚀现象演示
配件 LIFLUBA
The Cavitation Phenomenon Demonstration unit, "FME19", designed by EDIBON is composed of a Venturi tube with a rectangular cross section, one of its sides being transparent, allowing a better visualization of the cavitation phenomenon.It includes...
FLOW VISUALIZATION IN CHANNELS - FME09
Available
8.1.5.- 流量显示
FME09
流动可视化渠道
配件 LIFLUBA
The Flow Visualization in Channels unit, "FME09", designed by EDIBON, allows the visualization of liquid spillage phenomena in weirs and the study of objects submerged in a fluid stream (aerodynamics).The unit consists of a transparent...
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