9.- 热力学与热工学

热力学是物理学的一个分支,致力于研究平衡系统中热量,功和能量的其他表现形式之间的相互作用。热力学原理解释了处于平衡状态的宏观系统的整体行为。

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热力学不涉及传热过程,因为它仅研究初始状态和最终状态。这些过程属于热工学的范围,热工学的重点是确定实际热量和能量通量的传导,对流和辐射过程。

从历史上一直通过研究不同系统中的压力,体积和温度关系来研究解释热力学现象的基本定律:

  • 开放式系统:与外部(冷却塔)进行热量和质量交换。
  • 封闭系统:它们仅与外部(带有可移动柱塞的容器)进行热交换。
  • 隔离系统:它们不交换热量或质量(理想的热水瓶)。
  • 从热电厂的能源生产到制冷系统,再到建筑工程,热力学和热工技术有许多用途。

设备中的主要实际应用是利用能量和热量的转换和交换的热力机械:发动机,涡轮机,空调,暖气,锅炉,喷嘴,冷却塔…

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热力学与热工学 SUBCATEGORIES

9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念

热力学是物理学的一个分支,属于现象学的一个分支,它研究的是真实的、非模型的系统,遵循的是实验方法。因此,它们的定义是通过近似和测量变量的方式进行实验。从宏观上看,热力学系统是通过变量来定义的。可以测量大量的热力学变量,但只需要一个数字就可以明确地确定系统,即状态函数。压力、体积、温度、熵和焓是一些最重要的状态变量。随着热力学变量的修改,物质的聚集状态发生变化。聚合的基本状态有固态、液态和气态,对于每一种元素或化合物来说,都有一定的压力和温度条件来发生状态变化。为了简化实际的热力学系统和发生的状态变化,引入了理想气体模型概念。它们是由理想气体方程定义的。以同样的方式我们近似于理想的不可压缩...

9.2.- 加热, 通风, 空调和热水

在很多生活中,都需要特定的环境条件,如工业环境、房屋或温室。可以根据要求,借助具体的装置改变空气参数。正常情况下,空气中约有23%的氧气、76%的氮气和1%的质量气体和蒸汽。其中,最重要的是水蒸气,虽然它所占的比例很小,但对湿润表面和材料的蒸发速度具有根本性的意义。空调和通风装置负责改变空气的湿度和其他参数,如温度和压力。随着空气参数的改变,水暖系统被用来获得特定的条件。在日常环境中,可以将水加热用于卫生目的(浴室、淋浴)和其他清洁或加热目的。根据其后续使用情况,用加热系统对水进行调节。生活用水可以通过两种方式制备。所谓积累:在水箱中积累足够的热水,以达到预期的使用目的。通过瞬时加热:水...

9.3.- 热泵

热泵是一种热机,它能将能量以热的形式从一个环境交换到另一个环境,从一个冷源交换到一个暖源。由于热力学的第二原理,热量会自发地从热源转移到冷源,因此,它的运行需要能量输入。热泵的周期如下。压缩:压缩机将电能转化为热能,并将其传递给制冷剂液体,提高其压力和温度。 冷凝:制冷剂在冷凝器中由气态变为液态,向热源放出热量。 膨胀:液体膨胀成气体,冷却下来。 蒸发:从冷源中吸收热量并传递给制冷剂。...

9.4.- 冷藏

制冷是一个热力学过程,包括降低或维持空间或物体的温度。该过程包括从冷源中提取热量并将其传递给热源。冷却液是用来输送能量的。最广泛的制冷系统是制冷循环系统。该系统遵循经典的压缩周期。压缩:压缩机将电能转化为热能,并将其传递给制冷剂液体,提高其压力和温度。 冷凝:制冷剂在冷凝器中由气态变为液态,向热源放出热量。 膨胀:液体膨胀成气体,冷却下来。 蒸发:从冷源中吸收热量并传递给制冷剂。...

9.5.- 热力液压管路系统

热力液压管道都是属于热力装置的流体输送系统。在建筑物中,这些系统被用作供暖和卫生设施的一部分。导水系统是根据一定的目标进行设计和计算的,其中最重要的目标是保质保量地提供所有服务用水。建筑物的饮用水供应涉及三种类型的装置。一个是冷水安装,另一个是热水安装,最后一个是环卫安装,包括废水和雨水的疏通。另一方面,供暖系统是一个封闭的回路,里面有水。它在锅炉中加热,在散热器中放出热量。供人饮用的冷水装置是由水箱、管道、配件等各种要素组成的,必须保证安全卫生,避免微生物的发展。在这类安装中,必须特别注意军团菌的发展,军团菌是一种生活在死水或含有有机物的水中的细菌。研究材料也很重要,因为大多数固体加热...

9.6.- 传播热量

热力学定律处理的是能量传递和热与功之间的相互作用,但只是在平衡系统中。因此,它们可以让我们确定初始和最终状态,但对预测和量化中间过程没有用。传热提供了确定这些过程的方法。传热方式有三种。 传导:在固体介质中发生的温度梯度的作用,使热量从温度较高的区域向温度较低的区域传递。单位时间内传导的热量与温度梯度乘以面积 A 成正比。对流:当流体与固体表面接触时,流体的颗粒与固体之间发生交换。有两个对流过程。自由对流:驱动力来自于流体颗粒间的密度差。与固体接触的颗粒改变了温度和密度,从而引起向上流动。 强制对流:驱动力来自外部,使流体在表面移动。...

9.7.- 换热器

热交换器是一种在两种流体之间传递热量的机械设备。热量可以通过流体之间的接触或通过隔开它们的固体屏障来传递。它们是空调、制冷、空气调节等系统的基本元件。直接接触式换热器是指通过两股气流的摩擦来传递热量的换热器。这种类型的换热器用于在传输过程后,流体容易分离的情况下,例如在冷却塔中。间接接触式换热器的隔墙将两种流体隔开,热量通过对流和传导的方式传递。在间接接触式热交换器中,有两个子群。交替:流体交替地在同一空间内流动。热流体将热量传递给表面,冷流体与之接触时吸收热量。表面:热量通过固体屏障传递,将流体分开。它们在各类系统中最为广泛。根据分离面的不同,它们可以是:板式换热器:分离面为平壁。管式...

9.8.- 热机

热机是一组机械元件,通过可压缩流体将能量从热源传递到冷源的循环过程进行工作。在热机中,工作流体在通过时有明显的密度变化。相反,在液压机中,这种变化可以忽略不计。热机的分类有几个标准。根据能量传递的方向:电机或发电机。根据其构成:旋转式或往复式。根据流量的连续性:容积式或连续式流量。根据燃烧的地点:外燃或内燃。最重要的火力发电设备是:涡轮机:是一种流体连续通过的旋转机械,它通过轴传递能量。当流体通过构成机器的叶片时,其压力会降低,使其旋转。内燃机:顾名思义,它是一种直接从燃烧室内产生的燃料获得机械能的机器。最广泛的有:内燃机(奥托循环)、柴油机(柴油循环)、斯特林发动机。蒸汽机:是一种将热...

9.9.- 内部燃烧发动机

内燃机是指燃料与空气混合气的化学能在工作气缸内经过燃烧过程后转化为机械能的流体机械。在燃烧过程中,燃料所含的能量通过其点火和随后在发动机内部的氧化作用释放出来。内燃机的主要类型有:奥托循环内燃机:这是传统的汽油机。柴油发动机:用柴油燃料运行。奥托发动机和柴油发动机的主要部件(缸体、活塞、连杆、曲轴、气门和缸盖)相同,除了一些特殊的部件,如奥托发动机的化油器或柴油发动机的喷油器外,包含的系统(动力系统、配气、点火、冷却和启动)也相同。根据工作周期的不同,内燃机可分为以下几种。二笔:他们在每个回合都会进行有用的笔触。四冲程:它们每转两圈就做一次有用的冲程。这些发动机从其他推进方式中脱颖而出,...

9.10.- 安装与维护

当今社会的需求对任何行业来说都是一种挑战,因为行业必须在不断的发展和改造中才能适应这些需求。近年来,由于新的工业革命或 "工业4.0","工业物联网"(IIoT)和 "智能工厂...
热力学与热工学 UNITS
Showing 1-30 of 205 item(s)
COMPUTER CONTROLLED COMBUSTION LABORATORY UNIT - TVCC
  • TVCC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TVCC

Computer Controlled Combustion Laboratory Unit

The Computer Controlled Combustion Laboratory Unit, "TVCC", unit is mounted on a metallic frame that enables safe access to the equipment and an easy handling and access to the burner, combustion chamber and all the accessories and control panels....
THERMAL EXPANSION TRAINING UNIT - TEDT
  • TEDT
Available
9.5.- 热力液压管路系统
TEDT

Thermal Expansion Training Unit

The Thermal Expansion Training Unit, "TEDT", allows to study the thermal expansion of different pipe sections and the thermal expansion force. It comprises original components as used in heating and sanitation systems. This unit provides...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED EXPANSION PROCESSES OF A PERFECT GAS UNIT - TEPGC
  • TEPGC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TEPGC

Computer Controlled Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas Unit

The "TEPGC" is a unit designed to demonstrate the expansion and compression processes of a perfect gas and the basic principles of thermodynamics. The unit consists of two rigid vessels connected to each other. They are made of methacrylate to...
BOMB CALORIMETER - TBCF
  • TBCF
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TBCF

Bomb Calorimeter

Bomb Calorimeter, "TBCF", comprises the calorimeter, a calorimeter vessel, an outer double walled water jacket, control unit to switch on/off the stirrer and the ignition device, an accurate thermometer and charging unit with pressure gauges to...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED SEPARATING AND THROTTLING CALORIMETER - TCESC
  • TCESC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TCESC

Computer Controlled Separating and Throttling Calorimeter

The Computer Controlled Separating and Throttling Calorimeter, "TCESC", has been designed to determine the steam humidity content and the dryness fraction of steam.This unit works with steam. The steam is introduced into the line by means of a...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED MARCET BOILER UNIT - TECMC
  • TECMC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TECMC

Computer Controlled Marcet Boiler Unit

The Computer Controlled Marcet Boiler Unit "TECMC" is an unit designed to demonstrate the relationship between pressure and temperature of the saturated steam for comparison with published results.The unit consists of an insulated stainless steel...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNIT - TMTC
  • TMTC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TMTC

Computer Controlled Temperature Measurement Unit

The Computer Controlled Temperature Measurement Unit, "TMTC", works as a temperature meter that uses different temperatures measuring devices to compare, check and analyze the temperature and how is the precision for the measure and for the device...
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNIT - TMT
  • TMT
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TMT

Temperature Measurement Unit

The Temperature Measurement Unit, "TMT", works as a temperature meter that uses different temperatures measuring devices to compare, check and analyze the temperature and how is the precision for the measure and for the device that the student has...
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT TRAINING UNIT - TEMT
  • TEMT
Available
9.10.3.- 安装和维护惯例
TEMT

Temperature Measurement Training Unit

The Temperature Measurement Training Unit, "TEMT", allows to compare the response of several devices to measure the temperature for different flows and different installation position of these devices.The unit includes four different measuring...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED GAS LAWS UNIT (BOYLE AND GAY-LUSSAC LAWS) - TLBGC
  • TLBGC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TLBGC

Computer Controlled Gas Laws Unit (Boyle and Gay-Lussac Laws)

The Computer Controlled Gas Laws Unit (Boyle and Gay-Lussac Law), "TLBGC", allows to demonstrate two fundamental gas laws: Boylend Mariotte's Law (isothermal change of state) and Gay-Lussac's 2 Law (isochoric change of state).The unit consists of...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED RECYCLE LOOPS UNIT - TRLC
  • TRLC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TRLC

Computer Controlled Recycle Loops Unit

The Computer Controlled Recycle Loops Unit, "TRLC", has been designed to demonstrate, both visually and experimentally, what a recycleloop is and how it works. It has many teaching applications, among them the performance of mass and energy...
RECYCLE LOOPS UNIT - TRLB
  • TRLB
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TRLB

Recycle Loops Unit

The Recycle Loops Unit, "TRLB", has been designed to demonstrate, both visually and experimentally, what a recycle loop is and how itworks. It has many teaching applications, among them the performance of mass and energy balances under stable and...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED SATURATION PRESSURE UNIT - TSPC
  • TSPC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TSPC

Computer Controlled Saturation Pressure Unit

The Computer Controlled Saturation Pressure Unit, "TSPC", consists of a water boiler, including a computer controlled immersion heating element, and a sight glass to observe the boiling patterns in the water surface and control the water level...
AIR HUMIDITY MEASUREMENT UNIT - TMHA
  • TMHA
Available
9.2.- 加热, 通风, 空调和热水
TMHA

Air Humidity Measurement Unit

The Air Humidity Measurement Unit, "TMHA", enables the differences in accuracy between different instruments to measure the air relative humidity. It also includes a fan to show the effects of airflow on the different instruments. A mobile...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED FLAME PROPAGATION AND STABILITY UNIT - TVPLC
  • TVPLC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TVPLC

Computer Controlled Flame Propagation and Stability Unit

The Computer Controlled Flame Propagation and Stability Unit, "TVPLC", is a teaching unit which allows to obtain various flames by changing the quantities of the fuel – comburent mix. The unit is prepared to work with different gaseous fuels, so...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED FLOW OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS UNIT - HFCC
  • HFCC
Available
8.7.5.- 压缩机
HFCC

Computer Controlled Flow of Compressible Fluids Unit

The Computer Controlled Flow of Compressible Fluids Unit, "HFCC", allows to study the variation of pressure and density, the speeds of the fluid, the different fluctuations that the fluid presents when fluids across different sections in a pipe,...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED NOZZLE PERFORMANCE TEST UNIT - TFTC
  • TFTC
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TFTC

Computer Controlled Nozzle Performance Test Unit

The Computer Controlled Nozzle Performance Test Unit, "TFTC", has been specially designed to allow students to investigate and study the performance of a nozzle (kinetic energy and thrust). Operating from a normal laboratory compressed air...
NOZZLE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION UNIT - TPT
  • TPT
Available
9.1.- 热力学的基本原理和基本概念
TPT

Nozzle Pressure Distribution Unit

The Nozzle Pressure Distribution Unit "TPT" has been designed to demonstrate the phenomena associated to fluxes through nozzles and to allow the students investigating quickly the pressure distribution in them.The Nozzle Pressure Distribution...
COMPUTER CONTROLLED BIOMASS PROCESS UNIT - EBMC
  • EBMC
Available
5.3.7.- 生物燃料
EBMC

计算机控制生物质的工艺设备

The main element of the unit is the biomass boiler, which will heat the water that will flow through the other components transferring its heat.The boiler is a biomass boiler of 16 kW that works with pellet and other granulated fuels. The body of...
  • EBMB
Available
5.3.7.- 生物燃料
EBMB

Biomass Process Unit

The main element of the unit is the biomass boiler, which will heat the water that will flow through the other components transferring its heat.The boiler is a biomass boiler of 16 kW that works with pellet and other granulated fuels. The body of...
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