General Description

The Computer Controlled 1.5kW Steam Power Plant, "TPTVC/1.5kW", represents a laboratory scale power plant, guaranteeing a great similarity with a real system. It offers many practical exercises to familiarize the student with the operation procedure of a steam power plant with process control. Besides, it has different optional modules to adapt to the needs of each working place.

The process starts with a pre-treatment of the water to avoid the introduction of hard water to the process. EDIBON suggests the Softener Unit, "SFU", as an OPTIONAL unit, to remove the salts, impurities and other substances that may dirt the inside of the steam plant components.

Softened water can be directed towards two tanks (inlet tanks) through two computer controlled solenoid valves. The first tank stores the water for the main generation circuit and the second tank stores the water used in the refrigeration circuit.

The water of the first inlet tank is introduced by a computer controlled pump in the steam generation system, after passing through a set of sensors that collect information about the inlet temperature, pressure and flow to the generator. For the steam generation, EDIBON recommends the OPTIONAL Steam Generator Unit, "SGU/B". It is a steam generator with a burner that can work with different fuels (diesel oil or natural gas) with control over the working temperature, which generates steam quickly.

When the steam is generated at the working pressure and temperature conditions (superheated steam), it is driven to a turbine after passing through a droplet separator. Before being introduced in the turbine, a set of sensors gathers the values of the steam pressure, temperature and flow and transfer the information to the computer. The turbine is supplied with two generators and the rotation of the turbine vanes generates the electrical current thanks to the motion transferred by the shaft to those generators, coupled to both sides of the turbine. Two working modes are available: an isolated working mode, in which a group of variable resistors consume the electrical energy produced by the generator coupled to the turbine, and a grid synchronization working mode, in which all the electrical parameters (P, Q, S, f, etc.) supplied by the generator to the grid are measured.

The values of power and rpm are displayed in the computer, allowing the user to obtain the characteristic curves of the turbine: electrical power versus steam pressure, rpm versus steam pressure, power versus rpm, among other additional characteristic curves.

The turbine has a computer controlled speed. A pressure sensor and a temperature sensor measure the steam conditions at the outlet of the turbine. The steam coming out of the turbine is condensed in a heat exchanger and is recirculated to its inlet water tank by a computer controlled tank.

The pressure in the circuit at the outlet of the turbine is negative thanks to a vacuum system consisting of a vacuum pump and two tanks, making the pressure drops easier in the turbine.

The water of the second inlet tank (refrigeration circuit) is impelled by a computer controlled pump inside the turbine and condenser, acting as refrigerant in this circuit. Water coming out of the refrigeration circuit of the turbine and the refrigeration circuit of the condenser are mixed and, with higher temperature than at the beginning of the circuit, it is either drained or refrigerated by the Refrigeration Tower Unit, "RETU", OPTIONAL unit, and returned to the second inlet tank to reuse it.

The corresponding mass and energy balances, as well as the Rankine cycle representation and the calculation of the corresponding efficiencies in the main devices, can be done in the main devices of the unit.

This Computer Controlled Unit is supplied with the EDIBON Computer Control System (SCADA), and includes: The unit itself + a Control Interface Box + a Data Acquisition Board + Computer Control, Data Acquisition and Data Management Software Packages, for controlling the process and all parameters involved in the process.

Exercises and guided practices

GUIDED PRACTICAL EXERCISES INCLUDED IN THE MANUAL

Commissioning experiments:

  1. Study, analysis and test of safety systems.
  2. Study, analysis and test of measurement systems.
  3. Study, analysis and test of pressure in the circuit.
  4. Study of the pressure and temperature control techniques in a steam power plant.
  5. Study, analysis and test of the water softening unit.
  6. Study, analysis, operation and test of the steam boiler.
  7. Study, analysis and test of the steam flow sensor.
  8. Study, analysis and test of the condenser.
  9. Study, analysis and test of the refrigeration tower.
  10. Study and analysis of the corresponding maintenance in a steam power plant.
  11. Commissioning of a steam power plant.
  12. Shut down of a steam power plant.

Operating experiments:

  1. Study of the operation of a steam power plant.
  2. Familiarization with a water/steam closed circuit.
  3. Study and understanding of the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
  4. Determination of the steam generator efficiency.
  5. Determination of fuel consumption in function of the steam flow generated.
  6. Determination of the condenser efficiency.
  7. Determination of the amount of heat removed by the condenser.
  8. Determination of the ideal mechanical/thermal efficiency of the turbine.
  9. Determination of the real mechanical/thermal efficiency of the turbine.
  10. Determination of the refrigeration tower efficiency.
  11. Determination of the amount of heat removed by the refrigeration tower.
  12. Determination of the water-steam ratio required by the plant.
  13. Study of the power generated.
  14. Study of the global efficiency of the steam cycle.
  15. Steam flow and measurements range.

Thermodinamic cycle and study of the power generated:

  1. Study, analysis and representation of Rankine cycle for the steam generation plant.
  2. Study, analysis and representation of the generated power in function of the steam pressure, with and without load variation in the generator.
  3. Study, analysis and representation of the steam pressure in function of the revolutions in the steam turbine, with and without load variation in the generator.
  4. Study, analysis and representation of the generated power in function of the type of intake to the turbine, with constant working pressure, with and without load variation in the generator.
  5. Study, analysis and representation of the generated power in function of the vacuum pressure at the turbine outlet, with and without load variation in the generator.
  6. Study, analysis and representation of the vacuum pressure at the turbine outlet in function of the revolutions of the turbine, with and without load variation in the generator.

Parameters of the power generation:

  1. Study of the relation between the power delivered to the grid and the steam flow.
  2. Study of the relation between the power delivered to the grid and the steam pressure.
  3. Study of the relation between the power delivered to the grid and the vacuum pressure at the turbine outlet.
  4. Study of the relation of the active power of the generator in function of the steam flow in an isolated circuit (island mode).
  5. Study of the relation of the active power of the generator in function of the steam pressure in an isolated circuit (island mode).
  6. Study of the relation of the active power generation of the generator in function of the vacuum pressure at the turbine outlet in an isolated circuit (island mode).
  7. Study of the turbine fluctuation and the generator when suffering a sudden change in the power demand.
  8. Study of the synchronization procedure of turbine-generator group with the electrical grid through a grid inverter.
  9. Study of the consequences suffered when the generator is suddenly uncoupled from the electrical grid. Checking the safety systems of the power plant.
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MORE PRACTICAL EXERCISES TO BE DONE WITH THE UNIT

  1. Study of heat losses in pipes.
  2. Study of the most important parameters in a steam power plant.
  3. Study of the steam generator efficiency in function of fuel used.
  4. Sensors calibration.

Other possibilities to be done with this Unit:

  1. Many students view results simultaneously. To view all results in real time in the classroom by means of a projector or an electronic whiteboard.
  2. Open Control, Multicontrol and Real Time Control. This unit allows intrinsically and/or extrinsically to change the span, gains, proportional, integral, derivative parameters, etc, in real time.
  3. The Computer Control System with SCADA and PID Control allow a real industrial simulation.
  4. This unit is totally safe as uses mechanical, electrical and electronic, and software safety devices.
  5. This unit can be used for doing applied research.
  6. This unit can be used for giving training courses to Industries even to other Technical Education Institutions.
  7. Control of the TPTVC/1.5 kW unit process through the control interface box without the computer.
  8. Visualization of all the sensors values used in the TPTVC/1.5 kW unit process.
  9. Several other exercises can be .done and designed by the user.

SIMILAR UNITS AVAILABLE

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