The Computer Controlled Smart Grids Application, "AEL-BSGC", has been designed to study the Smart Grids in the generation, transmission, distribution and load consumption fields.
Students and teachers of universities and research laboratories schools can easily study and investigate how a real Smart Grid works since electrical energy is produced till it is consumed, analyzing problems and solutions in each part of the process or as the whole. The AEL-BSGC includes a 1 kVA Three-Phase Synchronous Generator-Motor group which is used to study the production of electricity. The synchronous generator is coupled to a three-phase induction motor of squirrel cage controlled through a variable frequency drive. With the frequency controller the user can control (manual and automatic) the induction motor speed and reproduce any power generation condition. In addition, the generator excitation is controlled by an AVR (automatic voltage regulator) that allows user to control (manual and automatic) the current excitation of the synchronous generator. This device is an advanced speed and voltage controller and allows to study the operation of a real speed and voltage controller, synchronization and stand-alone operations. The user can monitor speed and voltage PIDs in order to study the stability of the synchronous generator-motor group. In power generation systems it is very important to maintain speed and voltage constants to avoid possible damages due to frequency or voltage oscillations. With this application students will learn how actual speed/voltage controller works. Additionally, Edibon recommends a second power generation substation to study parallel operations with two generators, recovery system after black-outs, etc.
In addition, a transmission line module is included. With this module it is possible to study how electrical energy is transported and distributed along hundreds of kilometers. The transmission line module is designed according to the concentrated parameters theory with variable inductances, capacitances and resistances. This module allows change the lines length, the capacitive effect with the ground and the capacitive effect between the lines. Thus the students will understand how the line parameters affect in the transported energy.
On the other hand two network analyzers for bidirectional smart metering (Smart Meter Simulators) are included. Through these analyzers the user can study energy losses in the transmission lines, measuring upstream and downstream voltages, active powers, reactive powers, power factor, line currents and many other electrical parameters.
Finally, know that any power system requires consumption devices and energy balance is an issue to be analyzed. For this purpose, the AEL-BSGC includes resistive, inductive and capacitive loads in order to provoke unstable conditions in power generation to study how this smart grid reach the stability automatically.
The AEL-BSGC includes a SCADA Control and Data Acquisition System. It represents faithfully a power generation substation with a turbine-generator control center with network analyzers, circuit breakers, transmission line and resistive, capacitive and inductive loads. The SCADA is designed to control in real time of whole power substation, for instance, speed and voltage can be remotely controlled while the user observes the behavior of the operating system. On the other hand, it is possible to synchronize the generator with the national grid and take the control of the turbine and generator. Thus the user can understand what effects of the frequency and current excitation are in synchronism with the grid. Droop voltages, overspeed, underspeed, overcurrents, overloads and reverse power are some of many phenomena that the user can study from the SCADA.
In addition, SCADA Control System acquires in real time many electrical parameters from the network analyzers. Power generation, power transmission and energy consumption can be monitored and are displayed to analyze power, current, voltages and many other waves. After electrical data acquisition it is possible carry out data logging for future analysis.